MBE 4000

DDEC-ECU — Engine-Resident Control Unit

Generated on 10-13-2008

General Information

SCOPE AND USE OF THIS MANUAL

This manual contains complete instructions on operation, adjustment (tune-up), preventive maintenance, and repair (including complete overhaul) for the MBE 4000 engine. This manual was written primarily for persons servicing and overhauling the engine. In addition, this manual contains all of the instructions essential to the operators and users. Basic maintenance and overhaul procedures are common to all MBE 4000 engines, and apply to all engine models.‪

This manual is divided into numbered sections. Section one covers the engine (less major assemblies). The following sections cover a complete system such as the fuel system, lubrication system, or air system. Each section is divided into subsections which contain complete maintenance and operating instructions for a specific engine subassembly. Each section begins with a table of contents. Pages and illustrations are numbered consecutively within each section.‪

Information can be located by using the table of contents at the front of the manual or the table of contents at the beginning of each section. Information on specific subassemblies or accessories within the major section is listed immediately following the section title.‪

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The MBE 4000 Engine described in this manual is a water-cooled, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine. The cylinders are arranged in line. Each cylinder has a separate fuel injection pump (unit pump) with a short injection line to the injection nozzle, which is located in the center of the combustion chamber. The unit pumps are attached to the crankcase and are driven from the camshaft. Each cylinder has two intake valves and two exhaust valves.‪

Charge-air cooling and an exhaust gas turbocharger are standard equipment on all MBE 4000 engines.‪

The engine has a fully electronic control system, which regulates the injection quantity and timing using solenoid valves, allowing extremely low-emission operation. The control system consists of an engine-resident pump and nozzle control unit (the DDEC-ECU) and a vehicle control unit (the DDEC-VCU). The two are connected by a proprietary datalink.‪

Engine braking is controlled by a pneumatically-operated exhaust brake on the turbocharger and by a constant-throttle system. For greater braking power, an optional turbo brake is available.‪

The cylinder block has integrated oil and water channels. The upper section of the cylinder bore is induction-hardened. The six individual cylinder heads are made of cast iron. The cylinder head gasket is an adjustment-free seal with rubber sealing elements.‪

The pistons are made of aluminum alloy with ring carriers and a shallow combustion chamber recess. The pistons are cooled by oil spray nozzles.‪

The crankshaft is precision-forged with seven main bearings and eight custom-forged counter weights, and a vibration damper at the front end.‪

The camshaft is made of induction-hardened steel and has seven main bearings. Each cylinder has cams for intake and exhaust valves and a unit pump.‪

The valves are controlled by mushroom tappets, pushrods, and rocker arms. The intake and exhaust valves are opened and closed by a valve-guided bridge.‪

There is a force-feed lubricating oil circuit supplied by a gear-type oil pump. This pump is positioned at the rear of the oil pan and driven by gears from the crankshaft. The oil heat exchanger is located near the front of the crankcase on the right-hand side near the turbocharger.‪

The gear-type fuel pump is located near the front of the crankcase on the left hand side. The pump is driven from the forward end of the camshaft.‪

The air compressor, with a power-steering pump attached, is driven by a gear on the camshaft.‪

The engine is cooled by a closed system using recirculated coolant; temperature is regulated automatically by a thermostat.‪

There are three drive belts, each with its own automatic belt tensioner. The alternator and coolant pump (and any other accessories) are driven by a main drive belt. The fan and the air conditioner compressor are each driven by their own drive belt.‪

ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEM

The engine is equipped with a fully electronic control system. Besides the engine and its related sensors, this system is composed of the DDEC-ECU, or engine control unit, and the DDEC-VCU, or vehicle control unit. The two control units are connected by a proprietary datalink through which all necessary data and information can be exchanged. The DDEC-VCU then broadcasts all information on the J1587 and J1939 datalinks, where it can be read by minidiag2, Nexiq™ Diagnostic Data Reader (DDR), or Detroit Diesel Diagnostic Link® (DDDL) PC software.‪

The DDEC-ECU monitors both the engine and the datalink. When a malfunction or other problem is detected, the system selects an appropriate response; for example, the emergency running mode may be activated.‪

DDEC-ECU — Engine-Resident Control Unit

The DDEC-ECU control unit is located on the left-hand side of the engine. See Figure "DDEC-ECU Control Unit Location" . The DDEC-ECU processes the data received from the DDEC-VCU, for example the position of the accelerator pedal, engine brake, etc. These data are evaluated together with the data from the sensors on the engine, such as, charge and oil pressure and coolant and fuel temperature. The data is then compared to the characteristic maps or lines stored in the DDEC-ECU. From these data, quantity and timing of injection are calculated and the unit pumps are actuated accordingly through the solenoid valves.‪

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Figure 1. DDEC-ECU Control Unit Location

Note: To obtain a replacement DDEC-ECU, all the data given on the DDEC-ECU label are required.

DDEC-VCU — Vehicle Control Unit

The vehicle control unit (DDEC-VCU) communicates with other electronic control units installed on the vehicle over the J1587 datalink. See Figure "Vehicle Control Unit (DDEC-VCU)" . Within the DDEC-VCU, sets of data for specific applications are stored. These include idle speed, maximum running speed, and speed limitation.‪

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Figure 2. Vehicle Control Unit (DDEC-VCU)

The DDEC-VCU receives data from the following sources:‪

  • The operator (accelerator pedal position, engine brake switch)
  • Other electronic control units (for example, the antilock brake system)
  • The DDEC-ECU control unit (data such as oil pressure and coolant temperature)
  • From these data, instructions are computed for controlling the engine and transmitted to the DDEC-ECU via the proprietary datalink. The DDEC-VCU controls various systems, for example, communications with the datalink, the engine brake, and the constant-throttle valves. If the engine control system detects a fault, the appropriate fault code is broadcast on the datalink and can be read using minidiag2. When there is a fault, the code for the control unit reporting the fault can be read directly on the display.‪

ENGINE BRAKING POWER

Exhaust Brake/Constant-Throttle Valves

To increase braking performance, the engine is equipped with an exhaust brake on the turbocharger in conjunction with constant-throttle valves on the cylinder head.‪

Note: The constant-throttle values are activated by engine oil pressure.

The exhaust back-pressure is used by the exhaust brake to increase braking performance. ‪

Optional Turbo Brake

For high braking output, the MBE 4000 engine can be equipped with an optional turbo brake. The turbo brake increases the air mass flow through the engine to provide up to 600 brake horsepower. The turbo brake can be operated either manually or automatically, through the cruise control function.‪

Because the charge air pressure is maintained at a high level during braking, full throttle response is available immediately, if the operator desires it, without any turbo lag.‪

The turbo brake is maintenance-free, highly reliable, and adds virtually no weight to the engine.‪

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND ENGINE VIEWS

For a general view of the MBE 4000 engine, showing major components, see Figure "Left Side, Major Engine Components" for the left-hand side, and see Figure "Right Side, Major Engine Components" for the right-hand side.‪

For a general view of the MBE 4000 engine, showing ports and fluid lines, see Figure "Left Side, Ports and Lines" for the left-hand side and see Figure "Right Side, Ports and Lines" for the right-hand side.‪

For a general view of the MBE 4000 engine, showing sensor locations, see Figure "Sensor Locations" . Two sensors are not easily visible from the left-hand side of the engine: the charge pressure/temperature sensor, located on the right-hand side of the charge air manifold, and the oil pressure/temperature sensor located at the base of the oil filter.‪

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 1. Front Camshaft Cover‪

 8. Power Steering Pump‪

 2. Thermostat Housing‪

 9. DDEC-ECU Control Unit‪

 3. Coolant Pump‪

10. Fuel Heat Exchanger‪

 4. Charge-Air (Intake) Manifold‪

11. Oil Pan‪

 5. Engine Trim Cover‪

12. Fuel Filter‪

 6. Crankcase Breather‪

13. Fuel Pump‪

 7. Air Compressor‪

14. Air Conditioner Compressor‪

Figure 3. Left Side, Major Engine Components

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 1. Starter‪

 8. Alternator‪

 2. Exhaust Brake Valve‪

 9. Oil Filter‪

 3. Exhaust Brake Cylinder‪

10. Oil Fill Tube‪

 4. Exhaust Manifold‪

11. Oil Heat Exchanger‪

 5. Cylinder Head Cover‪

12. Oil Dipstick‪

 6. Fan‪

13. Turbocharger‪

 7. Belt Tensioner‪

Figure 4. Right Side, Major Engine Components

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 1. Fuel Spill Line‪

 5. Coolant Line (to air compressor)‪

 2. Thermostat Outlet‪

 6. Hydraulic Line (to power steering pump)‪

 3. Charge Air Inlet‪

 7. Electronic Engine Harness Connector‪

 4. Open Breather Tube‪

 8. Fuel Feed Line‪

Figure 5. Left Side, Ports and Lines

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 1. Oil Drain Plug‪

 5. Turbocharger Outlet Pipe‪

 2. Turbo Oil Return Line‪

 6. Dipstick‪

 3. Constant-Throttle Inlet‪

 7. Oil Fill Cap‪

 4. Exhaust Brake Valve Outlet‪

 8. Coolant Pump Inlet Pipe‪

Figure 6. Right Side, Ports and Lines

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 1. Intake Manifold Pressure/Temperature Sensor‪

 5. Barometric Pressure Sensor (integrated into DDEC-ECU)‪

 2. TDC Sensor (on camshaft)‪

 6. Fuel Temperature Sensor‪

 3. Crank Angle Position Sensor‪

 7. Oil Pressure/Temperature Sensor‪

 4. Coolant Temperature Sensor‪

Figure 7. Sensor Locations

The general specifications for the MBE 4000 engine are listed in Table "General Technical Information" .‪

Description‪

6–Cylinder Engines‪

Engine Type‪

Vertical, inline cylinder block with turbocharger and charge-air cooler‪

Cooling System‪

Liquid Circuit‪

Combustion Principle‪

4–Stroke direct-injection diesel‪

Number of Cylinders‪

6‪

Bore‪

128 mm (5.03 in.)‪

Stroke‪

166 mm (6.53 in.)‪

Displacement‪

12.8 liters (781 in.3 )‪

Compression Ratio‪

17.25:1‪

Starting Speed‪

Approximately 100 rpm‪

Direction of Engine Rotation (viewed from flywheel)‪

Counterclockwise‪

Starter‪

Electric Motor‪

Engine “Dry” Weight‪

930 kg (2050 lb)‪

Valve Lash (with engine cool)‪

Intake = 0.40 mm (0.016 in.)‪

Exhaust = 0.60 mm (0.024 in.)‪

Valve Lift (at maximum valve clearance)‪

Intake = 11.546 mm (0.45 in.)‪

Exhaust = 11.963 mm (0.47 in.)‪

Minimum Engine Oil Pressure‪

At Idle rpm = 50 kPa (7 psi)‪

At Maximum rpm = 250 kPa (36 psi)‪

Fuel Injectors‪

Minimum Opening Pressure = 27,500 kPa (3989 psi)‪

Maximum Opening Pressure = 30,000 kPa (4350 psi)‪

Coolant Thermostat‪

Opening Temperature = 81 to 85°C (177 to 185°F)‪

Normal Operating Temperature = 95°C (203°F)‪

Table 6. General Technical Information

ENGINE MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER

The engine model number and serial number are located on the engine type plate. It is located on the oil filter housing on the right-hand side of the engine. See Figure "Location of Engine Type Plate" . The engine type reference and the complete engine serial number appear beside the name of the manufacturer. The engine type reference, OM 460 LA is the production code. The engine serial number contains the type reference followed by a sequential manufacturing number. See Figure "Engine Type Plate Detail" .‪

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Figure 8. Location of Engine Type Plate

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Figure 9. Engine Type Plate Detail

In addition to the fourteen-digit number on the engine type plate, there is a ten-digit number used for warranty and service that is found on the DDEC-ECU label. The ten-digit number is derived from the fourteen-digit number. See Figure "Engine Serial Number" .‪

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Figure 10. Engine Serial Number

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

The purpose of the Exhaust Gas Recirulation (EGR) system is to reduce engine exhaust gas emissions in accordance with EPA regulations.‪

The EGR system consists of:‪

  • EGR Cooler
  • EGR Control Valves
  • Reed Valves
  • EGR Charge Air Mixer

The MBE 4000 engines for on-highway EPA 2004 regulation applications use a cooled EGR system. Part of the exhaust gasses from the front three cylinders are routed from the exhaust manifold through the EGR cooler, past control and reed valves, and are mixed with the intake manifold charge air. The addition of cooled exhaust gasses back into the combustion airflow reduces the peak in cylinder combustion temperature. Less oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are produced at lower combustion temperatures.‪

The recycled exhaust gasses are cooled before engine consumption in a tube and shell engine water cooler. See Figure "Air flow Diagram through Engine with EGR System" .

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 1. Engine‪

 5. EGR Cooler‪

 2. Intake Air‪

 6. EGR Shutoff Valve‪

 3. EGR Modulated Valve‪

 7. Exhaust Air‪

 4. Reed Valves‪

Figure 11. Air flow Diagram through Engine with EGR System

For an general view of the MBE 4000 engine with an EGR system, See Figure "EGR Engine with EGR Components and Revised Parts (Right View)" for a right side view and see Figure "EGR Engine with EGR Components and Revised Parts (Left View)" for a left side view.‪

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 1. Oil Filter‪

 8. EGR Cooler‪

 2. Solenoid Valve (Wabco®)‪

 9. Reed Valve Housing‪

 3. Turbocharger‪

 10. EGR Modulated Control Valve‪

 4. EGR Gas Inlet Pipe (Hot Pipe)‪

 11. EGR Mixer‪

 5. Exhaust Manifold‪

 12. EGR Gas Outlet Pipe (Cold Pipe)‪

 6. EGR Shutoff Valve‪

 13. Alternator‪

 7. EGR Air Cylinder‪

 14. Belt Tensioner‪

Figure 12. EGR Engine with EGR Components and Revised Parts (Right View)

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 1. EGR Gas Outlet Pipe‪

 5. EGR Cooler‪

 2. Coolant Pump‪

 6. EGR Shutoff Valve (hidden)‪

 3. Thermostat Housing‪

 7. Crankcase Breather (Hengst filter)‪

 4. EGR Modulated Control Valve‪

 8. EGR Mixer‪

Figure 13. EGR Engine with EGR Components and Revised Parts (Left View)

EGR Cooler

The EGR Cooler is equipped with a single-pass cooler. Part of the exhaust gasses from the first three cylinders are directed through the EGR shutoff valve and through the cooler and reed valves, past the EGR modulated control valve and the mixer and then back to the cylinder.‪

EGR Control Valves

There are two EGR valves on the MBE 4000 EGR engine — the EGR shutoff valve and the EGR modulated control valve. The EGR shutoff valve is a pneumatically driven butterfly valve, located at the inlet of the EGR cooler. It closes when the exhaust flap or turbo-brake actuates, avoiding exhaust gas flow and excessive pressure in the EGR cooler and reed valves. The EGR modulated control valve is an electronically actuated butterfly valve located after the EGR cooler and reed valves, controlled by the DDEC-ECU (formerly PLD-MR). This valve controls the exhaust gas flow for the intake manifold.‪

Reed Valves

The reed valves work like a check valve, allowing flow of gas only in one direction, avoiding gas back flow when the intake pressure is higher than exhaust gas pressure. As the average exhaust pressure is lower than the intake pressure, the gas flow through the reed valves is possible due to exhaust gas pressure peaks — peaks slightly higher than the intake air pressure, which occur as the engine exhaust valves open. During this peak of pressure, the reed valves open and allow gas flow to the EGR modulated valve and mixer.‪

EGR Mixer

The purpose of the mixer is to ensure good mixing of the cooled EGR gasses with filtered charge air. Once the exhaust gasses are cooled and have completed their cycle through the EGR system, they are released into the EGR mixer. The recycled exhaust gasses are combined with the charged air and directed to the cylinders.‪

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS AND PRECAUTIONS

The following safety measures are essential when working on the MBE 4000 engine.‪

To reduce the chance of personal injury and/or property damage, the following instructions must be carefully observed:‪

  • Proper service and repair are important to the service technician and the safe, reliable operation of the engine. If part replacement is necessary, the part must be replaced with one of the same part number or with an equivalent part number. Do not use a replacement part of lesser quality.
  • The service procedures recommended and described in this manual are effective methods of performing repair. Some of these procedures require the use of specially designed tools.
  • Accordingly, anyone who intends to use a replacement part, procedure or tool that is not recommended, must first determine that neither personal safety nor the safe operation of the engine will be jeopardized by the replacement part, procedure or tool selected.‪

  • It is important to note that this manual contains various “Cautions” and “Notices” that must be carefully observed in order to reduce the risk of personal injury during repair or the possibility that improper repair may damage the engine or render it unsafe. It is also important to understand that these “Cautions” and “Notices” are not exhaustive, because it is impossible to warn personnel of the possible hazardous consequences that might result from failure to follow these instructions.

Exhaust (Start/Run Engine)

Before starting and running an engine, adhere to the following safety precautions:‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury before starting and running the engine, ensure the vehicle is parked on a level surface, parking brake is set, and the wheels are blocked.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.‪

  • Always start and operate an engine in a well ventilated area.
  • If operating an engine in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the outside.
  • Do not modify or tamper with the exhaust system or emission control system.

Stands

Safety stands are required in conjunction with hydraulic jacks or hoists. Do not rely on either the jack or the hoist to carry the load. When lifting an engine, ensure the lifting device is fastened securely. Ensure the item to be lifted does not exceed the capacity of the lifting device.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury when removing or installing a heavy engine component, ensure the component is properly supported and securely attached to an adequate lifting device to prevent the component from falling.‪

Glasses

Select appropriate safety glasses for the job. It is especially important to wear safety glasses when using tools such as hammers, chisels, pullers or punches.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury when working on or near an operating engine, wear protective clothing, eye protection, and hearing protection.‪

Work Place

Organize your work area and keep it clean. A fall could result in a serious injury. Eliminate the possibility of a fall by: ‪

  • Wiping up oil spills
  • Keeping tools and parts off the floor

After servicing or adjusting the engine:‪

  • Reinstall all safety devices, guards or shields
  • Ensure that all tools and servicing equipment are removed from the engine

Welding

Wear welding goggles and gloves when welding or using an acetylene torch.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from arc welding, gas welding, or cutting, wear required safety equipment such as an arc welder's face plate or gas welder's goggles, welding gloves, protective apron, long sleeve shirt, head protection, and safety shoes. Always perform welding or cutting operations in a well ventilated area. The gas in oxygen/acetylene cylinders used in gas welding and cutting is under high pressure. If a cylinder should fall due to careless handling, the gage end could strike an obstruction and fracture, resulting in a gas leak leading to fire or an explosion. If a cylinder should fall resulting in the gage end breaking off, the sudden release of cylinder pressure will turn the cylinder into a dangerous projectile. Observe the following precautions when using oxygen/acetylene gas cylinders:‪

  • Always wear required safety shoes.
  • Do not handle tanks in a careless manner or with greasy gloves or slippery hands.
  • Use a chain, bracket, or other restraining device at all times to prevent gas cylinders from falling.
  • Do not place gas cylinders on their sides, but stand them upright when in use.
  • Do not drop, drag, roll, or strike a cylinder forcefully.
  • Always close valves completely when finished welding or cutting.
warning

FIRE

To avoid injury from fire, check for fuel or oil leaks before welding or carrying an open flame near the engine.‪

NOTICE:

Use proper shielding around hydraulic lines when welding to prevent hydraulic line damage.‪

Ensure that a metal shield separates the acetylene and oxygen that must be chained to a cart.‪

Clothing

Safe work clothing fits and is in good repair. Work shoes are sturdy and rough-soled. Bare feet, sandals or sneakers are not acceptable foot wear when adjusting and/or servicing an engine. Do not wear the following when working on an engine: ‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine, remove loose items of clothing and jewelry. Tie back or contain long hair that could be caught in any moving part causing injury.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury when working on or near an operating engine, wear protective clothing, eye protection, and hearing protection.‪

  • Rings
  • Wrist watches
  • Loose fitting clothing

Any of these items could catch on moving parts causing serious injury.‪

Power Tools

Do not use defective portable power tools.‪

warning

ELECTRICAL SHOCK

To avoid injury from electrical shock, follow OEM furnished operating instructions prior to usage.‪

Check for frayed cords prior to using the tool. Be sure all electric tools are grounded. Defective electrical equipment can cause severe injury. Improper use of electrical equipment can cause severe injury.‪

Air

Recommendations regarding the use of compressed air are indicated throughout the manual.‪

warning

EYE INJURY

To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.‪

Fuel Lines

Remove fuel lines as an assembly. Do not remove fuel lines individually. Avoid getting fuel injection lines mixed up.‪

Fluids and Pressure

Be extremely careful when dealing with fluids under pressure.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from penetrating fluids, do not put your hands in front of fluid under pressure. Fluids under pressure can penetrate skin and clothing.‪

Fluids under pressure can have enough force to penetrate the skin. These fluids can infect a minor cut or opening in the skin. If injured by escaping fluid, see a doctor at once. Serious infection or reaction can result without immediate medical treatment.‪

Fuel

Keep the hose and nozzle or the funnel and container in contact with the metal of the fuel tank when refueling to avoid the possibility of an electric spark igniting the fuel.‪

warning

FIRE

To avoid injury from fire caused by heated diesel-fuel vapors:‪

  • Keep those people who are not directly involved in servicing away from the engine.
  • Stop the engine immediately if a fuel leak is detected.
  • Do not smoke or allow open flames when working on an operating engine.
  • Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, insulated gloves and apron, etc.).
  • To prevent a buildup of potentially volatile vapors, keep the engine area well ventilated during operation.
warning

GASOLINE VAPOR IGNITION

To avoid injury from possible gasoline vapor ignition when refueling, keep the hose, nozzle, funnel, or container in contact with the metal opening of the fuel tank. This will reduce the likelihood of a dangerous spark.‪

The following cautions should be followed when filling a fuel tank:‪

caution

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from fuel spills, do not overfill the fuel tank.‪

warning

FIRE

To avoid injury from fire, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel fuel, including open flames, sparks, and electrical resistance heating elements. Do not smoke when refueling.‪

Batteries

Electrical storage batteries emit highly flammable hydrogen gas when charging and continue to do so for some time after receiving a steady charge.‪

warning

Battery Explosion and Acid Burn

To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid, work in a well ventilated area, wear protective clothing, and avoid sparks or flames near the battery. If you come in contact with battery acid:‪

  • Flush your skin with water.
  • Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize the acid.
  • Flush your eyes with water.
  • Get medical attention immediately.

Always disconnect the battery cable before working on the electrical system.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from accidental engine startup while servicing the engine, disconnect/disable the starting system.‪

Disconnect the batteries or disable an air starter when working on the engine to prevent accidental starting.‪

Fire

Keep a charged fire extinguisher within reach. Be sure you have the correct type of extinguisher for the situation.‪

Cleaning Agent

Avoid the use of carbon tetrachloride as a cleaning agent because of the harmful vapors that it releases. Ensure the work area is adequately ventilated. Use protective gloves, goggles or face shield, and apron.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from harmful vapors or skin contact, do not use carbon tetrachloride as a cleaning agent.‪

Exercise caution against burns when using oxalic acid to clean the cooling passages of the engine.‪

Working on a Running Engine

When working on an engine that is running, accidental contact with the hot exhaust manifold can cause severe burns.‪

caution

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from unguarded rotating and moving engine components, check that all protective devices have been reinstalled after working on the engine.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury, use care when working around moving belts and rotating parts on the engine.‪

Start Attempts

Avoid excessive injection of ether into the engine during start attempts.‪

NOTICE:

Avoid excessive injection of ether into the engine during start attempts. Injection of excessive ether may result in an uncontrolled internal engine explosion that could cause engine damage. Follow the manufacturer's instructions on proper product use.‪

Follow the instructions on the container or by the manufacturer of the starting aid.‪

Fluoroelastomer (Viton) Use

Under normal design conditions, fluoroelastomer (VITON) parts, such as O-rings and seals, are perfectly safe to handle.‪

warning

CHEMICAL BURNS

To avoid injury from chemical burns, wear a face shield and neoprene or PVC gloves when handling fluoroelastomer O-rings or seals that have been degraded by excessive heat. Discard gloves after handling degraded fluoroelastomer parts.‪

However, a potential hazard may occur if these components are raised to a temperature above 316°C (600°F), such as during a cylinder failure or engine fire. At temperatures above 316°C (600°F) fluoroelastomer will decompose (indicated by charring or the appearance of a black, sticky mass) and produce hydrofluoric acid. This is extremely corrosive and, if touched by bare skin, may cause severe burns, sometimes with symptoms delayed for several hours.‪

ENGLISH TO METRIC CONVERSION

Listed in Table "English to Metric Conversion Table" are the English to metric conversions.‪

Multiply Length‪

By‪

To get equivalent number of:‪

Inch (in.)‪

25.4‪

Millimeters (mm)‪

Foot (ft)‪

0.3048‪

Meters (m)‪

Yard (yd)‪

0.9144‪

Meters (m)‪

Mile (mile)‪

1.609‪

Kilometers (km)‪

Multiply Area‪

By‪

To get equivalent number of:‪

Inch2 (in.2 )‪

645.2‪

Millimeters2 (mm2 )‪

Inch2 (in.2 )‪

6.45‪

Centimeters2 (cm2 )‪

Foot2 (ft2 )‪

0.0929‪

Meters2 (m2 )‪

Yard2 (yd2 )‪

0.8361‪

Meters2 (m2 )‪

Multiply Volume

By

To get equivalent number of:

Inch3 (in.3 )‪

16387‪

Millimeters3 (mm3 )‪

Inch3 (in.3 )‪

16.387‪

Centimeters3 (cm3 )‪

Inch3 (in.3 )‪

0.0164‪

Liters (L)‪

Quart (qt)‪

0.9464‪

Liters (L)‪

Gallon (gal)‪

3.785‪

Liters (L)‪

Yard3 (yd3 )‪

0.7646‪

Meters3 (m3 )‪

Multiply Mass

By

To get equivalent number of:

Pound (lb)‪

0.4536‪

Kilograms (kg)‪

Ton (ton)‪

907.18‪

Kilograms (kg)‪

Ton (ton)‪

0.907‪

Tonne (t)‪

Multiply Force

By

To get equivalent number of:

Kilogram (kg)‪

9.807‪

Newtons (N)‪

Ounce (oz)‪

0.2780‪

Newtons (N)‪

Pound (lb)‪

4.448‪

Newtons (N)‪

Multiply Temperature

By

To get equivalent number of:

Degree Fahrenheit (°F)‪

(°F-32) ÷ 1.8‪

Degree Celsius (°C)‪

Multiply Acceleration

By

To get equivalent number of:

Foot/second2 (ft/sec2 )‪

0.3048‪

Meter/second2 (m/sec2 )‪

Inch/second2 (in./sec2 )‪

0.0254‪

Meter/second2 (m/sec2 )‪

Multiply Torque

By

To get equivalent number of:

Pound-inch (lb·in.)‪

0.11298‪

Newton-meters (N·m)‪

Pound-foot (lb·ft)‪

1.3558‪

Newton-meters (N·m)‪

Multiply Power

By

To get equivalent number of:

Horsepower (hp)‪

0.746‪

Kilowatts (kW)‪

Multiply Power

By

To get equivalent number of:

Inches of water (in. H2 0)‪

0.2491‪

Kilopascals (kPa)‪

Pounds/square in. (lb/in.2 )‪

6.895‪

Kilopascals (kPa)‪

Multiply Energy or Work

By

To get equivalent number of:

British Thermal Unit (Btu)‪

1055‪

Joules (J)‪

Foot-pound (ft·lb)‪

1.3558‪

Joules (J)‪

kilowatt-hour (kW·hr)‪

3,600,000. or 3.6 x 106

Joules (J = one W/s)‪

Multiply Light

By

To get equivalent number of:

Foot candle (fc)‪

10.764‪

Lumens/meter2 (lm/m2 )‪

Multiply Fuel Performance

By

To get equivalent number of:

Miles/gal (mile/gal)‪

0.4251‪

Kilometers/liter (km/L)‪

Gallons/mile (gal/mile)‪

2.3527‪

Liter/kilometer (L/km)‪

Multiply Velocity

By

To get equivalent number of:

Miles/hour (mile/hr)‪

1.6093‪

Kilometers/hour (km/hr)‪

Table 33. English to Metric Conversion Table

DECIMAL AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS

Listed in Table "Conversion Chart-Customary and Metric Units" are the decimal and metric equivalents.‪

Fractions of an inch

Decimal (in.)

Metric (mm)

Fractions of an inch

Decimal (in.)

Metric (mm)

1/64‪

0.015625‪

0.39688‪

33/64‪

0.515625‪

13.09687‪

1/32‪

0.03125‪

0.79375‪

17/32‪

0.53125‪

13.49375‪

3/64‪

0.046875‪

1.19062‪

35/64‪

0.546875‪

13.89062‪

1/16‪

0.0625‪

1.58750‪

9/16‪

0.5625‪

14.28750‪

5/64‪

0.078125‪

1.98437‪

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