Intake Stroke

General Information

SCOPE AND USE OF THIS MANUAL

This manual contains complete instructions on operation, adjustment (tune-up), preventive maintenance, lubrication, and repair (including complete overhaul). This manual was written primarily for persons servicing and overhauling the engine. In addition, this manual contains all of the instructions essential to the operators and users.‪

This manual is divided into numbered sections. The first section covers the engine (less major assemblies). The following sections cover a complete system such as the fuel system, lubrication system or air system. Each section is divided into subsections which contain complete maintenance and operating instructions for a specific engine subassembly. Each section begins with a table of contents. Pages and illustrations are numbered consecutively within each section.‪

Information can be located by using the table of contents at the front of the manual or the table of contents at the beginning of each section. Information on specific subassemblies or accessories within the major section is listed immediately following the section title.‪

SERVICE PARTS AVAILABILITY

Service parts are available throughout the world. A complete list of distributors and dealers is provided in the Detroit Diesel Corporation Worldwide Parts and Service Directory , 6SE280. This publication is available from all authorized Detroit Diesel distributors. When parts are ordered, the distributor or dealer must be provided with the engine identification and model number. This is located in the front left corner of the cylinder block.‪

THE FOUR-CYCLE PRINCIPLE

The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine, in which the energy of burning fuel is used to drive the engine cylinders. Air is compressed in each cylinder, increasing its temperature. After the air has been compressed, a charge of fuel is injected into the cylinder, and the hot, compressed air ignites.‪

The piston strokes of a four cycle engine occur in the following order: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. See Figure "The Four Stroke Cycle" .‪

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Figure 1. The Four Stroke Cycle

Intake Stroke

During the intake stroke, the piston travels downward, with the intake valves open and the exhaust valves closed. The downstroke enables air from the intake manifold to enter the cylinder through the open intake valve. The turbocharger, by increasing the air pressure in the intake manifold, ensures a full charge of air is provided to the cylinder.‪

Compression Stroke

At the end of the intake stroke, with the exhaust valves still closed, the intake valves close, and the piston starts upward on the compression stroke.‪

At the end of the compression stroke, the combustion chamber air has been compressed to occupy a space about one-sixteenth the size it occupied at the start of the stroke. Thus, the compression ratio is 16:1.‪

Compressing the air into a small space causes the temperature of that air to rise. Near the end of the compression stroke, the pressure of the air above the piston is approximately 3,445 to 4,134 kPa (500 to 600 lb/in. 2 ) and the temperature of that air is approximately 538°C (1000°F). During the last part of the compression stroke and the early part of the power stroke, a small metered charge of fuel is injected into the combustion chamber.‪

Power Stroke

During the power stroke, the piston travels downward with intake and exhaust valves closed.‪

As fuel is added and ignites, the pressure increases, forcing the piston down and rotating the crankshaft.‪

Exhaust Stroke

During the exhaust stroke, the intake valves are closed; the exhaust valves are open; and the piston is on its upstroke.‪

The burned gases are forced out of the combustion chamber through the open exhaust valve port by the upward travel of the piston.‪

From the preceding description, it is apparent that the proper operation of the engine depends upon the two separate functions: first, compression for ignition, and second, that fuel be measured and injected into the compressed air in the cylinder in the proper quantity and at the proper time.‪

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The Series 40E diesel engines are a new family of inline six-cylinder, 4-cycle, water cooled, turbocharged, overhead valve, air-to-air intercooled with replaceable valve guides and valve seats for both intake and exhaust, offered by Detroit Diesel Corporation. The engine is fueled by a direct injection fuel system with electronic sensors and Hydraulically actuated Electronically controlled Unit Injectors (HEUI). The firing order is 1-5-3-6-2-4. The Series 40E engine is available in two displacements, the 8.7 L (530 in.3 ) and the 7.6 L (466 in3 ).‪

The crankcase has been designed to withstand the loads of diesel operation. It has cast water and oil passages. The crankcase also has replaceable wet-type cylinder sleeves. Every main bearing web has angled, drilled holes that are fitted with jet tubes that direct lube oil, under pressure, to the underside of each piston to help dissipate heat.‪

The crankshaft is forged steel with induction hardened journals and undercut fillets. It is supported on seven precision insert bearings. The camshaft is supported on four pre-reamed bushings and is gear driven from the crankshaft. The end thrust of the camshaft is controlled by a thrust flange located between the front camshaft journal and the cam gear.‪

The teepee style connecting rod is constructed of forged steel. They are attached to the crankshaft, one per journal. The pistons are cast aluminum alloy and are fitted with two compression rings and one oil ring. The piston pin is a free-floating type permitting the pin to move or float freely in the piston and connecting rod, and is held in place with pin retaining rings.‪

A gerotor-type lube oil pump is mounted to the front cover. The pump is driven directly by the crankshaft at engine speed. All models are equipped with an oil cooler. The oil cooler has a single spin-on oil filter. There is also a single spin-on coolant filter. The fuel system has a single spin-on fuel filter and pre-strainer assembly attached to the fuel filter header. With the exception of the air compressor, high pressure pump and turbocharger, there is no external piping.‪

There are two oil galleys in the crankcase. The unfiltered oil galley runs down the lower right-hand side of the crankcase, and the filtered oil galley runs above it. Unfiltered oil travels from the oil pump, back through the front cover assembly, through the high pressure oil relief valve and into the unfiltered oil galley. The high pressure oil relief controls unfiltered oil pressure at 552 kPa (80 lb/in.2 ). There are two exit ports in the unfiltered oil galley. One exits to the front header of the oil cooler and one exits to the rear header of the oil cooler.‪

Depending upon the position of the oil thermostat, located in the rear oil cooler header, unfiltered oil can bypass the oil cooler core and go directly to the oil filter, or can flow through the oil cooler core and into the rear header and oil filter. The oil thermostat opens or closes by sensing the temperature of the unfiltered oil as it enters the rear header. Once the oil has passed the thermostat, unfiltered oil goes into the oil filter.‪

Clean engine oil flows out of the filter and goes back into the oil cooler header, then out the header and into the crankcase clean oil galley. The clean oil enters the crankcase, passes the main oil pressure regulating valve and is directed through various ports of the crankcase. The regulator valve keeps clean engine oil at minimum 345 kPa (50 lb/in.2 ).‪

CHASSIS MOUNTED AIR-TO-AIR INTERCOOLER

The Series 40E engines may be equipped with a chassis- mounted air-to-air cooling system. The charge air cooler is mounted either in front of the radiator or side by side. Air from the turbocharger is pushed through a network of heat exchanger tubes prior to entering the valve cover/intake manifold. Outside air flowing over the tubes and fins serves to cool the charge air. The resulting cooler intake air is denser than uncooled air, allowing an improved fuel/air ratio in the cylinders during combustion. This results in improved emission control and power output.‪

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

The specifications for the 40E, 7.6L engine models are listed in Table "Series 40E (7.6L) Engine Specifications" .‪

Engine Models: Series 40E, 7.6L

Specifications

Number of Cylinders‪

6‪

Configuration‪

Inline‪

Bore‪

109.2 mm (4.301 in.)‪

Stroke‪

135.9 mm (5.350 in.)‪

Displacement‪

7.6L (466 in.3 )‪

Compression Ratio Standard Torque Engines High Torque Engines‪

16.4:115.9:1‪

Firing Order‪

1-5-3-6-2-4‪

Valve Tappet Clearance (hot or cold) Intake Exhaust‪

0.635 mm (0.025 in.) 0.635 mm (0.025 in.)‪

Engine Lube Oil Pressure (operating temperature with SAE 15W-40 oil) Low Idle (700 r/min, non-adjustable) High Idle‪

137 kPa (20 lb/in.2 ) min. 344 kPa (50 lb/in.2 ) min.‪

Idle Speed No Load (r/min)‪

700 (non-adjustable)‪

Thermostat Opening Temperature‪

81°C (177° F)‪

Crankcase Capacity (without oil filter)‪

22.7L (24 quarts)‪

Crankcase Capacity (with oil filter)‪

26.4L (28 quarts)‪

Table 1. Series 40E (7.6L) Engine Specifications

The specifications for the 40E, 8.7L engines are listed in Table "Series 40E (8.7L) Engine Specifications" . ‪

Engine Models: Series 40E, 8.7L

Specifications

Number of Cylinders‪

6‪

Configuration‪

Inline‪

Bore‪

114.3 mm (4.590 in.)‪

Stroke‪

135.9 mm (5.350 in.)‪

Displacement‪

8.7L (530 in.3 )‪

Compression Ratio Standard Torque Aluminum Piston High Torque Steel Top‪

16.6:116.3:1‪

Firing Order‪

1-5-3-6-2-4‪

Valve Tappet Clearance (hot or cold) Intake Exhaust‪

0.635 mm (0.025 in.) 0.635 mm (0.025 in.)‪

Engine Lube Oil Pressure (operating temperature with SAE 15W-40 oil) Low Idle (700 r/min, non-adjustable) High Idle‪

137 kPa (20 lb/in.2 ) min. 344 kPa (50 lb/in.2 ) min.‪

Idle Speed No Load (r/min)‪

700 (non-adjustable)‪

Thermostat Opening Temperature‪

82 - 85°C (180 - 185°F)‪

Crankcase Capacity (without oil filter)‪

22.7L (24 quarts)‪

Crankcase Capacity (with oil filter)‪

26.4L (28 quarts)‪

Table 2. Series 40E (8.7L) Engine Specifications

See Figure " Cylinder Designation and Firing Order" for the cylinder designation and firing order.‪

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Figure 2. Cylinder Designation and Firing Order

IDENTIFICATION

We suggest you write the engine model serial number in the spaces provided for quick reference when parts or service are required.‪

Series 40E Diesel Engine Serial Numbers

Engine Serial Number _______________________________________(Stamped on pad located on crankcase left side)‪

Engine Model (Punched out on Emission Label on Valve Cover/Intake Manifold)‪

Turbocharger Serial Number____________________________________‪

Turbocharger Part Number ____________________________________‪

Engine Identification

When in need of parts, always specify the engine model and serial number. The engine serial number is stamped on the crankcase pad located on the left side of the engine below the center of the cylinder head, listed in Table "Serial Number Explanation" . Engine exhaust emission labels are located on the top of the valve cover/intake manifold. See Figure "Serial Number and Emission Label Location " . Engine emission labels designate the model and other pertinent information. ‪

Other nameplate locations are on the turbocharger and starter; see Figure "Turbocharger Identification (Non-Wastegate Version)" . These nameplates, showing manufacturer and specifications, are important to assist operator or maintenance personnel in identifying equipment on the engine.‪

Build List

Country of Origin

Serial Sequence Number

WL 7.6TA‪

N USA‪

000000‪

WN 8.7TA‪

N USA‪

000000‪

Table 3. Serial Number Explanation

Note:

Exhaust Emission Label - More than one label may be present with each label having the same information in different languages. The labels, located on the valve cover/intake manifold of each engine, indicate the model year it is certified to meet governmental emission standards. For serial number and emission label location, see Figure "Serial Number and Emission Label Location " .‪

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Figure 3. Serial Number and Emission Label Location

Turbocharger Identification

See Figure "Turbocharger Identification (Non-Wastegate Version)" for the location of the turbocharger identification plate for the non-wastegate version.‪

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Figure 4. Turbocharger Identification (Non-Wastegate Version)

See Figure "Turbocharger Identification (Wastegate Version)" for the location of the turbocharger identification plate for the wastegate version.‪

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Figure 5. Turbocharger Identification (Wastegate Version)

REPLACING AND REPAIRING

Often, a service technician is justified in replacing a part rather than repairing it. However, reworking or reconditioning a part may save a customer considerable expense. Electronic Unit Pumps (EUPs), fuel pumps, water pumps, and turbochargers should be replaced with reliabilt ™ remanufactured parts. Various factors, such as engine application, hours in service, and the next scheduled overhaul must be considered when determining whether to rework or replace a part.‪

DISASSEMBLY

A service technician can be severely injured if caught in the pulleys, belts, or fan of an accidentally started engine. Therefore, observe the following precautions before beginning work on an engine. ‪

caution

To avoid injury from accidental engine startup while servicing the engine, disconnect/disable the starting system.‪

caution

To avoid injury from the sudden release of a high-pressure hose connection, wear a face shield or goggles. Bleed the air from the air starter system before disconnecting the air supply hose.‪

Before beginning any major disassembly, drain engine lubricating oil, coolant, and fuel.‪

When performing major repairs or an engine overhaul, the entire engine should be mounted to an overhaul stand. At that point, engine subassemblies can be removed. When only a few items need replacement, it may not be necessary to mount the engine on an overhaul stand.‪

Whenever parts are removed, they should be kept together for easy inspection and assembly. Items with machined faces, which can be easily damaged, should be stored on suitable wooden racks or blocks, or a parts dolly.‪

CLEANING

Before removing any engine subassemblies (but after removing electrical equipment), thoroughly clean the engine exterior.‪

NOTICE:

Engine sensors, and other electronic components, may be damaged if subjected to the high temperatures of a solvent tank. Therefore, ensure that all electronic components are removed from engine assemblies before they are submerged in a solvent tank.‪

After each subassembly is removed and disassembled, individual parts should be cleaned. Only clean parts can be satisfactorily inspected.‪

The same basic procedure is used to clean all ordinary cast iron parts, including the cylinder block.‪

Steam Cleaning

A steam cleaner is indispensable for removing heavy accumulations of grease and dirt from the exterior of the engine and its subassemblies.‪

Solvent Tank Cleaning

Solvent cleaning requires a tank large enough to accommodate the largest part to be cleaned (usually the cylinder block).‪

caution

To avoid injury when using caustic cleaning agents, follow the chemical manufacturers usage, disposal, and safety instructions.‪

Fill the tank with a commercial heavy-duty solvent. Heat the cleaning solution to 82-93°C (180-200°F). Using a hoist, lower large parts directly into the tank. Use a wire mesh basket for smaller parts. Immerse parts until grease and dirt are loosened.‪

Note: Aluminum parts, such as flywheel housing, pistons, air intake manifold, oil filter adaptor and the camshaft gear access cover should NOT be cleaned in this manner. Mention will be made of special procedures when necessary.

Rinsing Bath

Provide a tank of similar size, filled with hot water, to rinse parts.‪

Drying

caution

To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 40 psi (276 kPa) air pressure.‪

Parts may be dried with compressed air. Heat from the hot tanks will frequently dry the parts, making blow drying unnecessary.‪

Rust Preventive

If parts are not to be used immediately after cleaning, dip them in a suitable rust preventive compound. Remove the rust preventive coating before installing the parts.‪

INSPECTION

A thorough parts inspection determines the parts to be reused and the parts to be replaced. While the engine overhaul specifications provided throughout the manual help indicate when parts should be replaced, the service technician must also exercise his judgment.‪

Note: The parts must be fully cleaned prior to inspection.

The following procedure should help determine the usability of a specific parts: ‪

  1. Determine the clearance between the mating parts and the wear rate of each part.
  2. Reinstall the used part if the current wear rate will maintain the clearances within the specified maximum allowable limits until the next scheduled overhaul.

Note: Wear rate is determined by dividing the amount of part wear by the hours in service.

In addition to making accurate parts measurements, the parts should also be inspected for cracks, scoring, chipping, and other detrimental conditions.‪

For complete information on service parts availability, contact your local Detroit Diesel distributor.‪

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

The following safety precautions must be observed when working on a Detroit Diesel engine:‪

warning

ENGINE EXHAUST

To avoid injury from inhaling engine exhaust, always operate the engine in a well-ventilated area. Engine exhaust is toxic.‪

All engine installations, especially those within enclosed spaces, should be equipped with an exhaust discharge pipe so that exhaust gases are delivered into the outside air. ‪

Stands

caution

To avoid injury from a falling component while using a lifting device, never stand beneath a suspended load.‪

Stands must be used in conjunction with hydraulic jacks or hoists. Do not rely on a jack or hoist alone. When lifting an engine, ensure the lifting device is securely fastened. Also ensure that the weight of the load being lifted does not exceed the lifting capacity of the device.‪

Glasses

Wear appropriate safety glasses. Safety glasses are especially important when tools, such as hammers, chisels, pullers, and punches, are used.‪

Welding

Wear welding goggles and gloves when welding or using an acetylene torch. Ensure that a metal shield separates the acetylene and oxygen tanks. These must be securely chained to a cart.‪

caution

To avoid injury from arc welding, gas welding, or cutting, wear required safety equipment such as an arc welder's face plate or gas welder's goggles, welding gloves, protective apron, long sleeve shirt, head protection, and safety shoes. Always perform welding or cutting operations in a well-ventilated area. The gas in oxygen/acetylene cylinders used in gas welding and cutting is under high pressure. If a cylinder should fall due to careless handling, the gage end could strike an obstruction and fracture, resulting in a gas leak leading to fire or an explosion. If a cylinder should fall resulting in the gage end breaking off, the sudden release of cylinder pressure will turn the cylinder into a dangerous projectile.‪

Observe the following precautions when using oxygen/acetylene gas cylinders:‪

  • Always wear required safety shoes.
  • Do not handle tanks in a careless manner or with greasy gloves or slippery hands.
  • Use a chain, bracket, or other restraining device at all times to prevent gas cylinders from falling.
  • Do not place gas cylinders on their sides, but stand them upright when in use.
  • Do not drop, drag, roll, or strike a cylinder forcefully.
  • Always close valves completely when finished welding or cutting.

Work Place

Organize your work area and keep it clean. Eliminate the possibility of a fall by:‪

  • Wiping up oil spills
  • Keeping tools and parts off the floor

After servicing or adjusting the engine:‪

  • Reinstall all safety devices, guards, or shields
  • Ensure all tools and service equipment are removed from the engine

Clothing

Work clothing should fit well and be in good repair. Work shoes should be sturdy and rough-soled. Bare feet, sandals, or sneakers are not acceptable footwear when adjusting or servicing an engine.‪

caution

To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine, remove loose items of clothing, jewelry, tie back or contain long hair that could be caught in any moving part causing injury.‪

Power Tools

NEVER use defective portable power tools.‪

caution

To avoid injury from electrical shock, follow OEM furnished operating instructions prior to usage.‪

Air

Recommendations regarding the use of compressed air are indicated throughout the manual. ‪

caution

To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 40 psi (276 kPa) air pressure.‪

caution

To avoid injury from tank rupture or a sudden air hose failure, do not use unregulated air pressure or an accumulator tank with an inadequate pressure rating.‪

Too much air can rupture or in some other way damage a component and create a hazardous situation that can lead to personal injury. Use only approved air blow guns that do not exceed 276 kPa (40 lb/in. 2 ). Be sure to wear safety glasses or goggles. Use proper shielding to protect everyone in the work area.‪

Fluids and Pressure

Be extremely careful when dealing with fluids under pressure. Fluids under pressure can have enough force to penetrate the skin. These fluids can infect a minor cut or opening in the skin. If injured by escaping fluid, see a doctor at once. Serious infection or reaction can result without immediate medical treatment.‪

caution

To avoid injury from the sudden release of a high-pressure hose connection, wear a face shield or goggles.‪

caution

To avoid injury from penetrating fluids, do not put your hands in front of fluid under pressure. Fluids under pressure can penetrate skin and clothing.‪

Fuel

Keep the hose and nozzle or the funnel and container in contact with the metal of the fuel tank when refueling.‪

caution

To avoid injury from fire, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel fuel, open flames, sparks, and electrical resistance heating elements. Do not smoke when refueling.‪

The following cautions should be followed when filling a fuel tank:‪

caution

To avoid injury from fire caused by heated diesel-fuel vapors:‪

  • Keep those people who are not directly involved in servicing away from the engine.
  • Stop the engine immediately if a fuel leak is detected.
  • Do not allow open flames or smoke when working on an operating engine.
  • Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, insulated gloves and apron, etc.).
  • To prevent a buildup of potentially volatile vapors, keep the engine area well ventilated during operation.

Diesel fuel is relatively harmless at ambient temperatures.‪

caution

To avoid injury from fire, contain and eliminate leaks of flammable fluids as they occur. Failure to eliminate leaks could result in fire.‪

Batteries

Electrical storage batteries emit highly flammable hydrogen gas when charging and continue to do so for some time after receiving a steady charge.‪

caution

To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid, work in a well-ventilated area, wear protective clothing, and avoid sparks or flames near the battery. Always establish correct polarity before connecting cables to the battery or battery circuit. If you come in contact with battery acid:‪

  • Flush your skin with water.
  • Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize the acid.
  • Flush your eyes with water.
  • Get medical attention immediately.

Always disconnect the battery cable before working on the electrical system.‪

caution

To avoid injury from accidental engine startup while servicing the engine, disconnect/disable the starting system.‪

Fire

Keep a charged fire extinguisher within reach. Ensure you have the proper type of extinguisher on hand.‪

Cleaning Agent

Avoid the use of carbon tetrachloride as a cleaning agent because of the harmful vapors that it releases. Ensure the work area is adequately ventilated. Use protective gloves, goggles or face shield, and apron.‪

caution

To avoid injury from harmful vapors or skin contact, do not use carbon tetrachloride as a cleaning agent.‪

Exercise care when using oxalic acid to clean engine cooling passages.‪

Working on a Running Engine

When working on an engine that is running, accidental contact with the hot exhaust manifold can cause severe burns. Remain alert to the location of the rotating fan, pulleys and belts. Avoid making contact across the two terminals of a battery which can result in severe arcing, or battery explosion.‪

caution

To avoid injury from rotating belts and fans, do not remove and discard safety guards.‪

caution

To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine, remove loose items of clothing, jewelry, tie back or contain long hair that could be caught in any moving part causing injury.‪

Start Attempts

Avoid excessive injection of ether into the engine during start attempts. Follow the instructions on the container or by the manufacturer of the starting aid.‪

NOTICE:

Avoid excessive injection of ether into the engine during start attempts. Injection of excessive ether may result in an uncontrolled internal engine explosion that could cause engine damage. Follow the manufacturer's instructions on proper product use.‪

Fluoroelastomer (VITON)

Under normal design conditions, fluoroelastomer ( VITON ) parts, such as O-rings and seals, are perfectly safe to handle.‪

caution

To avoid injury from chemical burns, wear a face shield and neoprene or PVC gloves when handling fluoroelastomer O-rings or seals that have been degraded by excessive heat. Discard gloves after handling degraded fluoroelastomer parts.‪

However, a potential hazard may occur if these components are raised to a temperature above 316°C (600°F), such as during a cylinder failure or engine fire. At temperatures above 316°C (600°F) fluoroelastomer will decompose (indicated by charring or the appearance of a black, sticky mass) and produce hydrofluoric acid. This is extremely corrosive and, if touched by bare skin, may cause severe burns, sometimes with symptoms delayed for several hours.‪

ENGINE VIEW

For location reference, the flywheel is mounted to the rear, and the crankshaft pulley is mounted to the front. See Figure "Engine View (Current Configuration)" .‪

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Figure 6. Engine View (Current Configuration)

TRADEMARKS AND REGISTERED TRADEMARKS

The following trademarks and registered trademarks are used with permission:‪

  • Loctite® is a registered trademark of the Loctite Corporation
  • Power Cool®, Power Trac® and reliabilt® are registered trademarks of Detroit Diesel Corporation
  • Plastigage® is a registered trademark of the Plastigage Company
  • Nalcool® and Nalprep® are registered trademarks of the Penray Companies

ENGLISH TO METRIC CONVERSION

English to metric conversions are listed in Table "English to Metric Conversion Table" .‪

Multiply

By

To get equivalent number of:

Inch (in.)‪

25.4‪

Millimeters (mm)‪

Foot (ft)‪

0.3048‪

Meters (m)‪

Yard (yd)‪

0.9144‪

Meters (m)‪

Mile (mile)‪

1.609‪

Kilometers (km)‪

Multiply Area

By

To get equivalent number of:

Inch 2 (in. 2 )‪

645.2‪

Millimeters 2 (mm 2 )‪

Inch 2 (in. 2 )‪

6.45‪

Centimeters 2 (cm 2 )‪

Foot 2 (ft 2 )‪

0.0929‪

Meters 2 (m 2 )‪

Yard 2 (yd 2 )‪

0.8361‪

Meters 2 (m 2 )‪

Multiply Volume

By

To get equivalent number of:

Inch 3 (in. 3 )‪

16387‪

Millimeters 3 (mm 3 )‪

Inch 3 (in. 3 )‪

16.387‪

Centimeters 3 (cm 3 )‪

Inch 3 (in. 3 )‪

0.0164‪

Liters (L)‪

Quart (qt)‪

0.9464‪

Liters (L)‪

Gallon (gal)‪

3.7854‪

Liters (L)‪

Yard 3 (yd 3 )‪

0.7646‪

Meters 3 (m 3 )‪

Multiply Mass

By

To get equivalent number of:

Pound (lb)‪

0.4536‪

Kilograms (kg)‪

Ton (ton)‪

907.18‪

Kilograms (kg)‪

Ton (ton)‪

0.907‪

Tonne (t)‪

Multiply Force

By

To get equivalent number of:

Kilogram (kg)‪

9.807‪

Newtons (N)‪

Ounce (oz)‪

0.2780‪

Newtons (N)‪

Pound (lb)‪

4.448‪

Newtons (N)‪

Multiply Temperature

By

To get equivalent number of:

Degree Fahrenheit (°F)‪

(°F-32) ÷ 1.8‪

Degree Celsius (°C)‪

Multiply Acceleration

By

To get equivalent number of:

Foot/second 2 (ft/sec 2 )‪

0.3048‪

Meter/second 2 (m/s 2 )‪

Inch/second 2 (in./sec 2 )‪

0.0254‪

Meter/second 2 (m/s 2 )‪

Multiply Torque

By

To get equivalent number of:

Pound-inch (lb·in.)‪

0.11298‪

Newton-meters (N·m)‪

Pound-foot (lb·ft)‪

1.3558‪

Newton-meters (N·m)‪

Multiply Power

By

To get equivalent number of:

Horsepower (hp)‪

0.746‪

Kilowatts (kW)‪

Inches of water (in. H 2 O)‪

0.2491‪

Kilopascals (kPa)‪

Pounds/square in. (lb/in. 2 )‪

6.895‪

Kilopascals (kPa)‪

Multiply Energy or Work

By

To get equivalent number of:

British Thermal Unit (Btu)‪

1055‪

Joules (J)‪

Foot-pound (ft·lb)‪

1.3558‪

Joules (J)‪

kilowatt-hour (kW·hr)‪

3,600,000. or 3.6 x 106

Joules (J = one W·s)‪

Multiply Light

By

To get equivalent number of:

Foot candle (fc)‪

10.764‪

Lumens/meter2 (lm/m2 )‪

Multiply Fuel Performance

By

To get equivalent number of:

Miles/gal (mile/gal)‪

0.4251‪

Kilometers/liter (km/L)‪

Gallons/mile (gal/mile)‪

2.3527‪

Liter/kilometer (L/km)‪

Multiply Velocity

By

To get equivalent number of:

Miles/hour (mile/hr)‪

1.6093‪

Kilometers/hour (km/hr)‪

Table 28. English to Metric Conversion Table

DECIMAL AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS

Listed in Table "Conversion Chart--Customary and Metric" are the decimal to metric equivalents.‪

Fractions of an inch

Decimal (in.)

Metric (mm)

Fractions of an inch

Decimal (in.)

Metric (mm)

1/64‪

.015625‪

0.39688‪

33/64‪

0.515625‪

13.09687‪

1/32‪

.03125‪

0.79375‪

17/32‪

0.53125‪

13.49375‪

3/64‪

.046875‪

1.19062‪

35/64‪

0.546875‪

13.89062‪

1/16‪

.0625‪

1.58750‪

9/16‪

0.5625‪

14.28750‪

5/64‪

.078125‪

1.98437‪

37/64‪

0.578125‪

14.68437‪

3/32‪

.09375‪

2.38125‪

19/32‪

0.59375‪

15.08125‪

7/64‪

.109375‪

2.77812‪

39/64‪

0.609375‪

15.47812‪

1/8‪

.125‪

3.175‪

5/8‪

0.625‪

15.87500‪

9/64‪

.140625‪

3.57187‪

41/64‪

0.640625‪

16.27187‪

5/32‪

.15625‪

3.96875‪

21/32‪

0.65625‪

16.66875‪

11/64‪

.171875‪

4.36562‪

43/64‪

0.671875‪

17.06562‪

3/16‪

.1875‪

4.76250‪

11/16‪

0.6875‪

17.46250‪

13/64‪

.203125‪

5.15937‪

45/64‪

0.703125‪

17.85937‪

7/32‪

.21875‪

5.55625‪

23/32‪

0.71875‪

18.25625‪

15/64‪

.234375‪

5.95312‪

47/64‪

0.734375‪

18.65312‪

1/4‪

.250‪

6.35000‪

3/4‪

0.750‪

19.05000‪

17/64‪

.265625‪

6.74687‪

49/64‪

0.765625‪

19.44687‪

9/32‪

.28125‪

7.14375‪

25/32‪

0.78125‪

19.84375‪

19/64‪

.296875‪

7.54062‪

51/

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