Section 5.1 Fuel

Section 5.1

The quality of fuel used is a very important factor in obtaining satisfactory engine performance, long engine life, and acceptable exhaust emission levels. The Series 60 engine was designed to operate on most diesel fuels marketed today. In general, fuels meeting the properties of ASTM Designation D 975 (Grades 1–D and 2–D) have provided satisfactory performance. The ASTM D 975 specification, however, does not in itself adequately define the fuel characteristics necessary to assure fuel quality. Reference the Lubricating Oil, Fuel, and Filters publication 7SE270 found on the DDC extranet This publication will provide information for optimum engine performance.‪

Section 5.1.1
Fuel Lubricity

Fuels such as those containing kerosene and jet fuel and some low sulfur fuels have characteristics which may cause operational concerns in some engine designs. The fuel injection systems used on VM and natural gas Detroit Diesel manufactured engines has demonstrated trouble-free operation on a wide variety of fuels without the need for supplemental additives.‪

Section 5.1.2
Biodiesel Fuels

Biodiesel fuels may be produced from a wide variety of sources and may be used in all DDC engines provided (1) they are derived from soy methyl ester (SME) and/or rape methyl ester (RME) and (2) are blended to a maximum of 20% by volume in diesel fuel. The resulting blend must meet the properties found in the Lubricating Oil, Fuel, and Filters publication 7SE270. ‪

Although such blends purport to reduce exhaust emission particulates, they increase the nitrogen oxides in engine exhaust. They also tend to have poorer thermal stability and may deteriorate engine oil Totla Base Number (TBN) more rapidly than wholly petroleum-based diesel fuels. These fuel blends have not been fully evaluated relative to diesel fuel system durability or engine oil effects. ‪

Section 5.1.3
Other Fuels

In addition to the diesel fuels found in the Lubricating Oil, Fuel, and Filters publication 7SE270 , customers have used other fuels successfully, including fuels marketed as premium diesel fuels, kerosene-based jet fuels, and other fuels found in the Lubricating Oil, Fuel, and Filters publication 7SE270. These fuels have provided economic and availability advantages for some applications, particularly where 1-D type fuels are required, and may be used in all Detroit Diesel engines. These fuels should be accompanied by exhaust emission data demonstrating emission equivalency to 1-D for those engines requiring 1-D fuel. Fuel type specifications and applications are listed in Table "Fuel Type Specifications and Applications" .‪


NATO Spec.

Mil Spec.





Jet Fuel, Contains 50% Gasoline, Not Recommended




Jet Fuel, Kerosene Based‪




Jet A-1 with De-icer and Corrosion Inhibitor‪

Jet A‪



Industry Standard Jet Fuel‪

Jet A-1‪



Jet Fuel, ASTM D 1655‪




Specified Military Use Inside Continental U.S.‪




Specified Military Use Outside Continental U.S.‪

Table 1. Fuel Type Specifications and Applications

Lower density fuels, such as those found in the Lubricating Oil, Fuel, and Filters publication 7SE270 and "winter blended" diesel fuels, have a lower volumetric heat content than the standard 2-D fuel found in the Lubricating Oil, Fuel, and Filters publication 7SE270. Operating with these fuels will result in reduced engine output and reduced fuel mileage, compared to standard 2-D fuel. Reductions of 5% are not unusual and may be as high as 10%. A good rule of thumb is: The engine power is proportional to the heating value of the fuel.‪

Lower density fuels also tend to have lower viscosity and poor lubrication characteristics.‪

Section 5.1.4
Fuel Cleanliness

Fuel should be clean and free of contamination. Storage tanks and stored fuel should be inspected regularly for dirt, water, or water-emulsion sludge, and cleaned if contaminated. Storage instability of the fuel can lead to the formation of varnish or sludge in the tank. The presence of these contaminants from storage instability must be resolved with the fuel supplier. If fuel is stored on site, the following is recommended:‪


Do not use a fuel storage tank or lines made from galvanized steel. The fuel will react chemically with the galvanized coating to form powdery flakes that will quickly clog fuel filters and cause damage to the fuel pump and injectors.‪

  • Keep the storage tank filler cap covered to prevent contamination by rain water.
  • Keep the tank clean, especially around the filler cap and tap areas.
  • Position the tank so that it tilts slightly toward the bottom drain. This will make it easier to drain accumulated water and sediment.
  • Minimize condensation by keeping the tank reasonably filled at all times.
  • After filling the fuel storage tank, wait a few hours before filling equipment tanks. This will allow contaminants to settle.

Section 5.1.5
Cold Weather Operation

In cold weather, diesel fuel will form wax crystals that can restrict flow and clog filters. Fuel suppliers approach this problem several ways. Some provide a specially refined product, while others may use flow improving additives or winter blends. Winter blended fuel will likely contain kerosene or 1-D fuel, which provide good cloud point temperatures but will result in a lighter fuel with a lower heat content. The use of such fuels is acceptable but may result in reduced engine power and/or fuel mileage.‪

Section 5.1.6
Prohibited Fuel Additives

Used Lubricating Oil: Detroit Diesel specifically prohibits the use of drained lubricating oil in diesel fuel. Used lubricating oil contains combustion acids and particulate materials which erode injector components, resulting in loss of power and increased exhaust emissions. In addition, the use of drained lubricating oil will increase maintenance requirements due to filter plugging and combustion deposits. Refer to the section "5.1.6 Prohibited Fuel Additives" for recommendations on proper used oil disposal.‪



To avoid injury from fire, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel fuel, including open flames, sparks, and electrical resistance heating elements. Do not smoke when refueling.‪



To avoid increased risk of a fuel fire, do not mix gasoline and diesel fuel.‪

The addition of gasoline to diesel fuel will create a serious fire hazard. The presence of gasoline in diesel fuel will reduce fuel cetane number and increase combustion temperatures. Tanks which contain such mixtures should be drained and cleaned as soon as possible.‪

Section 5.1.7
Waste Oil Disposal and Re-refined Oils

With over one billion gallons of waste oil generated annually in the U.S. alone, disposal of waste oil has become a serious environmental concern. Re-refining waste oils provides an environmentally viable way of handling this material. Detroit Diesel favors the recycling of waste oil and permits the use of re-refined oils in all engine product lines, provided the re-refined oil meets the SAE Viscosity and API specifications previously mentioned.‪



To avoid injury from combustion of heated lubricating-oil vapors, stop the engine immediately if an oil leak is detected.‪



To avoid injury from fire, do not smoke or allow open flames when working on an operating engine.‪



To avoid injury from fire from a buildup of volatile vapors, keep the engine area well ventilated during operation.‪

Consideration for the disposal of waste oil should begin when negotiating the purchase of new oil. Oil supplier selection criteria should include a proposal for handling waste oil. It is important to know exactly how the oil will be disposed of since it is the generator, not the hauler, that is ultimately responsible for its proper disposal.

Section 5.1.8
Specifications for Natural Gas Engine

The natural gas specifications for Detroit Diesel enginesare listed in Table "Natural Gas Specifications for Detroit Diesel Natural Gas Engines" .‪



ASTM Test Method

Hydrocarbon Methane Ethane Propane C4 and Higher‪

mole percent 88% Minimum 6% max.1.7% max.0.3% max.‪

D 1945‪

Other Gaseous Species HydrogenCarbon dioxide + Nitrogen + Oxygen OxygenCarbon Monoxide Other Species Methanol Sulfur, Total‪

mole percent 0.1% max.5.0% max. 0.5% max.0.1% max.0% mass max.1.0 grains / 100 SCF, max. (32 ppm mass, max., ¶)‪

D 2650, D1945D-1945D 2650No Test Method ASTM D 5504‪

Performance Related Properties Motor Octane Number Wobbe Number‪

115 Minimum 1290-1380 BTU/SCF‪

*D 2623D 3588‪




Pressure Water Dew PointTemperature, max.


D 1142‪

Pressure Hydrocarbon DewPoint Temperature, max.

‡ Below which will form1% condensate‪

D 1142‪




Table 8. Natural Gas Specifications for Detroit Diesel Natural Gas Engines

* Test Method D 2623 was obsoleted by ASTM in 1991. Wobbe Index (WI), also known as Wobbe Number, is a measure of fuel energy flow rate through a fixed orifice under given inlet conditions. Numerically, WI= (dry, higher heating value)/ (Specific gravity).
† The compressed natural gas shall not contain dust, sand, dirt, gums, oils, or other substances in an amount sufficient to be injurious to the fuel station equipment or the vehicle being fueled.
‡ The water and hydrocarbon dew point at fuel pressure shall be at least 10°F below the 99.0% winter design temperature listed in Chapter 24, Table 1, Climatic Conditions for the United States, in American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineer's (ASHRAE) Handbook, 1989 fundamentals volume. Testing for water and hydrocarbon vapor shall be in accordance with ASTM D 1142, utilizing the Bureau of Mines apparatus.
§ The natural gas at ambient conditions must have a distinctive odor potent enough for its presence to be detected down to a concentration in air of 1% by volume. ¶ For Genset applications, when using fuel containing sulfur in excess of 16 ppm, the oil change interval must be reduced. Refer to Item 1 in the Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance Intervals sections.

Series 60 Service Manual - 6SE483
Generated on 10-13-2008

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