Series 60

Intake Stroke

Generated on 10-13-2008

General Information

SCOPE AND USE OF THIS MANUAL

This manual contains complete instructions on operation, adjustment (tune-up), preventive maintenance, and repair (including complete overhaul) for the Series 60 Inline Diesel Engines. This manual was written primarily for persons servicing and overhauling the engine. In addition, this manual contains all of the instructions essential to the operators and users. Basic maintenance and overhaul procedures are common to all Series 60 Engines, and apply to all engine models.‪

This manual is divided into numbered sections. Section one covers the engine (less major assemblies). The following sections cover a complete system such as the fuel system, lubrication system, or air system. Each section is divided into subsections which contain complete maintenance and operating instructions for a specific engine subassembly. Each section begins with a table of contents. Pages and illustrations are numbered consecutively within each section.‪

Information can be located by using the table of contents at the front of the manual or the table of contents at the beginning of each section. Information on specific subassemblies or accessories within the major section is listed immediately following the section title.‪

CLEARANCE OF NEW PARTS AND WEAR LIMITS

New parts clearances apply only when all new parts are used at the point where the various specifications apply. This also applies to references within the text of the manual. The column entitled "Limits" must be qualified by the judgement of personnel responsible for installing new parts. For additional information, refer to the section entitled "Inspection" within this section. Refer to "Additional Information" , "Table of Specifications, New Clearances, and Wear Limits" under "Specifications", for a listing of clearances of new parts and wear limits on used parts.‪

THE FOUR CYCLE PRINCIPLE FOR DIESEL ENGINES

The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine, in which the energy of burning fuel is converted into energy to work the cylinder of the engine. In the diesel engine, air alone is compressed in the cylinder, raising its temperature significantly. After the air has been compressed, a charge of fuel is sprayed into the cylinder and ignition is accomplished by the heat of compression. The four piston strokes of the cycle occur in the following order: intake, compression, power and exhaust. See Figure "The Four Stroke Cycle (Diesel)" .‪

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Figure 1. The Four Stroke Cycle (Diesel)

Intake Stroke

During the intake stroke, the piston travels downward, the intake valves are open, and the exhaust valves are closed. The down stroke of the piston facilitates air from the intake manifold to enter the cylinder through the open intake valve. The turbocharger, by increasing the air pressure in the engine intake manifold, assures a full charge of air is available for the cylinder. ‪

The intake charge consists of air only with no fuel mixture. ‪

Compression Stroke

At the end of the intake stroke, the intake valves close and the piston starts upward on the compression stroke. The exhaust valves remain closed.‪

At the end of the compression stroke, the air in the combustion chamber has been compressed by the piston to occupy a space about one-fifteenth as great in volume as it occupied at the beginning of the stroke. Thus, the compression ratio is 15:1.‪

Compressing the air into a small space causes the temperature of that air to rise. Near the end of the compression stroke, the pressure of the air above the piston is approximately 3445 to 4134 kPa (500 to 600 lb/in.2 ) and the temperature of that air is approximately 538°C (1000°F). During the last part of the compression stroke and the early part of the power stroke, a small metered charge of fuel is injected into the combustion chamber.‪

Almost immediately after the fuel charge is injected into the combustion chamber, the fuel is ignited by the hot air and starts to burn, beginning the power stroke.‪

Power Stroke

During the power stroke, the piston travels downward and all intake and exhaust valves are closed.‪

As the fuel is added and burns, the gases get hotter, the pressure increases, pushing the piston downward and adding to crankshaft rotation.‪

Exhaust Stroke

During the exhaust stroke, the intake valves are closed; the exhaust valves are open, and the piston is on its up stroke.‪

The burned gases are forced out of the combustion chamber through the open exhaust valve port by the upward travel of the piston.‪

From the preceding description, it is apparent that the proper operation of the engine depends upon the two separate functions: first, compression for ignition, and second, that fuel be measured and injected into the compressed air in the cylinder in the proper quantity and at the proper time.‪

FOUR CYCLE PRINCIPLE FOR NATURAL GAS ENGINES

This engine is a four cycle internal combustion engine, in which the energy of burning fuel is converted into energy to work the cylinder of the engine. However, unlike the diesel engine, a combustible air and fuel mixture is introduced to the cylinder during the intake stroke. Upon compression, the temperature of this mixture is increased to a temperature below its auto-ignition threshold. Combustion occurs through means of a spark plug which ignites the mixture. See Figure "The Four Stroke Cycle (Series 60G Engine)" for the four stroke cycle utilized on the natural gas engine.‪

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Figure 2. The Four Stroke Cycle (Series 60G Engine)

Intake Stroke

During the intake stroke, the piston travels downward, the intake valves are open, and the exhaust valve are closed. The downward stroke of the piston increases the volume in the cylinder and draws in a fresh air and fuel mixture through the intake valves.‪

Compression Stroke

At the end of the intake stroke, the intake valves close and the piston starts upward on the compression stroke. The exhaust valves remain closed.‪

At the end of the compression stroke, the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber has been compressed by the piston to occupy a space about one-tenth as great in volume as it occupied at the beginning the stroke. Thus, the compression ratio is 10:1. This act of compression dramatically increases the temperature of the air-fuel mixture, to a temperature below its auto-ignition threshold. It is a timed, externally supplied ignition through the spark plug that actually causes ignition to the mixture. The timed spark is introduced to the cylinder near the end of the compression stroke, which initiates combustion and begins the power stroke.‪

Power Stroke

During the power stroke, the piston travels downward and all intake and exhaust valves are closed.‪

As the throttle is opened to introduce a greater charge of air-fuel mixture to the cylinders, the increasing pressure of combustion against the pistons adds to crankshaft rotation.‪

Exhaust Stroke

During the exhaust stroke, the intake valves are closed, the exhaust valves are open, and the piston is on its up stroke.‪

The burning gases are forced out of the combustion chamber through the open exhaust valve port by the upward travel of the piston.‪

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The Series 60® Diesel Engine described in this manual is a four-stroke cycle, high speed, diesel engine.‪

It uses an inline cast iron block and has a cast iron cylinder head that contains a single overhead camshaft. The camshaft actuates all the valves (two intake, two exhaust per cylinder), and operates the fuel injectors. The vertically aligned gear train, located at the front end of the engine in a gear case, contains drive gears for the lubricating oil pump, crankshaft, camshaft, air compressor drive, fuel pump drive, water pump and alternator accessory drives.‪

Each current engine is equipped with dual full-flow oil filters, an oil cooler, one or two fuel oil filters, a turbocharger and an electronic engine control system.‪

Full pressure lubrication is supplied to all main, connecting, camshaft and rocker assembly bearings and to other moving parts. A gear-type pump draws oil from the oil pan through a screen and delivers it to the oil filters. From the filter, a small portion of the oil is delivered directly to the turbocharger by an external oil line. The remainder of the oil flows to the oil cooler, or bypasses the cooler, and then enters a longitudinal oil gallery in the cylinder block where the supply divides. Part of the oil goes to the cylinder head where it feeds the camshaft bearings and rocker assemblies. The remainder of the oil goes to the main bearings and connecting rod bearings via the drilled oil passages in the crankshaft. Drilled passages in the connecting rod feed oil to the piston pin and the inner surface of the piston crown.‪

Coolant is circulated through the engine by a centrifugal-type water pump. The cooling system, including the radiator, is a closed system. Heat is removed from the coolant by the radiator. Control of the engine temperature is accomplished by thermostats that regulate the flow of the coolant within the cooling system. ‪

Fuel is drawn from the supply tank through the primary fuel filter by a gear-type fuel pump. From there, the fuel is forced through the secondary fuel filter and into the fuel inlet in the cylinder head and to the injectors. Excess fuel is returned, through a restricted fitting, to the supply tank through the outlet connecting line. Since the fuel is constantly circulating through the injectors, it serves to cool the injectors and to carry off any air in the fuel system. Air separators are available, as optional equipment.‪

Air is supplied by the turbocharger to the intake manifold and into the engine cylinders after passing through an air-to-air charge air cooler mounted ahead of the cooling system radiator. The charge air cooler cools the pressurized intake air charge coming from the turbocharger before it enters the intake manifold.‪

Engine starting may be provided by an electric or air starting motor energized by a storage battery or air pressure storage system. A battery charging alternator, with a suitable voltage regulator, serves to keep the battery charged.‪

The Series 60 diesel engine was designed to be electronically controlled. The Detroit Diesel Electronic Control (DDEC) system has evolved with the product. ‪

DDEC I

DDEC I controls the timing and amount of fuel injected into each cylinder. The system also monitors several engine functions using various sensors that send electrical signals to the main Electronic Control Module (ECM). See Figure "Schematic Diagram of DDEC I" . The ECM uses this information to send a command pulse to the Electronic Distributor Unit (EDU). The EDU functions as the high current switching unit for actuation of the Electronic Unit Injector (EUI) solenoids. The ECM also has the ability to limit or shut down the engine completely (depending on option selection) in the case of damaging engine conditions, such as low oil pressure, low coolant level, or high oil temperature.‪

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Figure 3. Schematic Diagram of DDEC I

DDEC II

DDEC II also controls the timing and amount of fuel injected into each cylinder. The system also monitors several engine sensors that send electrical signals to the main ECM. See Figure "Schematic Diagram of DDEC II" . Unlike DDEC I, the DDEC II ECM uses this information to actuate the EUI solenoids. DDEC II incorporates all of the control electronics into one engine mounted ECM instead of the ECM and EDU that are required in DDEC I. The ECM also has the ability to limit or shut down the engine completely (depending on option selection) in the case of damaging engine conditions, such as low oil pressure, low coolant level, or high oil temperature. ‪

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Figure 4. Schematic Diagram of DDEC II

DDEC III/IV

The DDEC III/IV ECM receives electronic inputs from sensors on the engine and vehicle, and uses the information to control engine operation. It computes fuel timing and fuel quantity based upon predetermined calibration tables in its memory.‪

Fuel is delivered to the cylinders by the EUIs, which are cam-driven to provide the mechanical input for pressurization of the fuel. The ECM controls solenoid operated valves in the EUIs to provide precise fuel delivery. See Figure "Schematic Diagram of DDEC III/IV" .‪

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Figure 5. Schematic Diagram of DDEC III/IV

Portable equipment facilitates access to diagnostic capabilities of DDEC III/IV's. The Diagnostic Data Reader (DDR) requests and receives engine data and diagnostic codes. This equipment provides many unique capabilities including cylinder cutout, printer output, and data snapshot. The DDR also provides limited programming capability.‪

DDEC III/IV (Series 60G Engine)

The DDEC III/IV ECM receives electronic inputs from sensors on the engine and vehicle, and uses the information to control engine operation. ‪

Fuel is controlled by DDEC. See Figure "Schematic Diagram of DDEC III/IV (Series 60G Engine)" .‪

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Figure 6. Schematic Diagram of DDEC III/IV (Series 60G Engine)

Portable equipment facilitates access to diagnostic capabilities of DDEC III/IV's. The Diagnostic Data Reader (DDR) requests and receives engine data and diagnostic codes. This equipment provides many unique capabilities including cylinder cutout, printer output, and data snapshot. The DDR also provides limited programming capability.‪

DDEC V

The DDEC V ECU receives electronic inputs from sensors on the engine and vehicle, and uses the information to control engine operation. It computes fuel timing and fuel quantity based upon predetermined calibration tables in its memory. DDEC V provides an indication of engine and vehicle malfunctions. The ECU continually monitors the DDEC V system. See Figure "Schematic Diagram of DDEC V" .‪

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Figure 7. Schematic Diagram of DDEC V

Any faults that occur are stored as codes in the ECU's memory. A DDDL® can be used to read the codes.‪

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

The general specifications for the Series 60 Engine are listed in Table "Specifications for the Series 60 Engine" . See Figure "Cylinder Designation and Firing Order" for the cylinder designation and firing order.‪

General Specifications

11.1L Family

12.7L Family

14L Family

Total Displacement (L)‪

11.1‪

12.7‪

14.0‪

Total Displacement (in.3 )‪

677‪

775‪

855‪

Type‪

4-cycle‪

4-cycle‪

4-cycle‪

Number of Cylinders‪

6‪

6‪

6‪

Bore (in.)‪

5.12‪

5.12‪

5.24‪

Bore (mm)‪

130‪

130‪

133‪

Stroke (in.)‪

5.47‪

6.30‪

6.61‪

Stroke (mm)‪

139‪

160‪

168‪

Compression Ratio‪

16.0:1‪

15.0:1 or 16.5:1‪

15.0:1 or 16.5:1‪

Number of Main Bearings‪

7‪

7‪

7‪

Table 1. Specifications for the Series 60 Engine
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Figure 8. Cylinder Designation and Firing Order

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE SERIES 60G ENGINE

The general specifications for the Series 60G Engine are listed in Table "General Specifications for the Series 60G Engine" . See Figure for cylinder designation and firing order.‪

General Description

Specification

Total Displacement (L)‪

12.7‪

Total Displacement (in.3 )‪

775‪

Type‪

Four-cycle‪

Number of Cylinders‪

6‪

Bore (in.)‪

5.12‪

Bore (mm)‪

130‪

Stroke (in.)‪

6.30‪

Stroke (mm)‪

160‪

Compression Ratio‪

10:1‪

Number of Main Bearings‪

7‪

Table 2. General Specifications for the Series 60G Engine
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Figure 9. Cylinder Designation and Firing Order for the Series 60G Engine

ENGINE MODEL, SERIAL NUMBER AND OPTION LABEL

The engine serial and model numbers are stamped on the cylinder block. See Figure "Location of Engine Serial and Model Number on Block" . A guide to the meaning of the model number digits is listed in Table "Model Number Description for Series 60 Engine" .‪

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Figure 10. Location of Engine Serial and Model Number on Block

Digit

Value

Meaning

1‪

6‪

Series 60 Engine‪

2 & 3‪

06‪

Six Cylinders‪

4‪

7‪

Automotive Application‪

5‪

W, S, E, L‪

11.1 L Displacement‪

5‪

G, T, M‪

12.7 L - Standard‪

5‪

P, B‪

12.7 L - Premium‪

5‪

F, H‪

14 L Displacement‪

6‪

T‪

DDEC I Engine Control‪

6‪

U‪

DDEC II Engine Control‪

6‪

K‪

DDEC III/IV Engine Control‪

6‪

V‪

DDEC V Engine Control‪

7 & 8‪

28‪

1991 and later Coach‪

7 & 8‪

40‪

Pre-1991 Engine‪

7 & 8‪

60‪

1991 and later On-Highway Truck‪

Table 3. Model Number Description for Series 60 Engine

For example, 6067-WK60 represents an 11.1 liter Series 60 engine that is controlled with DDEC III/IV electronics to be used in a 1991 or later truck.‪

Option labels attached to the valve rocker cover contain the engine serial and model numbers and list any optional equipment used on the engine. See Figure "Rocker Cover with Option Label" .‪

With any order for parts, the engine model number with serial number should be given. In addition, if a type number is shown on the option plate covering the equipment required, this number should also be included on the parts order. ‪

All groups or parts used on a unit are standard for the engine model unless otherwise listed on the option plate. ‪

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Figure 11. Rocker Cover with Option Label

ENGINE MODEL, SERIAL NUMBER AND OPTION LABEL (SERIES 60G ENGINE)

The engine serial and model numbers are stamped on the cylinder block. See Figure "Location of Engine Serial and Model Number on Block (Series 60G Engine)" . A guide to the meaning of the serial number digits is listed in Table "Model Number Description for Series 60G Engine" .‪

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Figure 12. Location of Engine Serial and Model Number on Block (Series 60G Engine)

Digit

Value

Meaning

1‪

6‪

Series 60 Engine‪

2 & 3‪

06‪

Six Cylinders‪

4‪

7‪

Automotive‪

5‪

G / T‪

12.7 L Displacement‪

6‪

K‪

DDEC III / DDEC IV‪

6‪

V‪

DDEC V‪

7‪

G‪

Alternate Fuel Engine‪

8‪

5 / 8‪

Customer Designation‪

Table 4. Model Number Description for Series 60G Engine

REPLACING AND REPAIRING

In many cases, a technician is justified in replacing parts with new material rather than attempting repair. However, there are times when a slight amount of reworking or reconditioning may save a customer considerable added expense. Exchange assemblies such as injectors, fuel pumps, water pumps and turbochargers are desirable service items.‪

Various factors such as the type of operation of the engine, hours in service and the next overhaul period must be considered when determining whether new parts are installed or used parts are reconditioned to provide trouble-free operation.‪

For convenience and logical order in disassembly and assembly, the various subassemblies and other related parts mounted on the cylinder block will be treated as separate items in the various sections of the manual.‪

DISASSEMBLY

A technician can be severely injured if caught in pulleys, belts or the fan of an engine that is accidentally started. To avoid such a misfortune, take the following precautions before starting to work on an engine.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from accidental engine startup while servicing the engine, disconnect/disable the starting system.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from the sudden release of a high-pressure hose connection, wear a face shield or goggles. Bleed the air from the air starter system before disconnecting the air supply hose.‪

Before any major disassembly, the engine must be drained of lubricating oil, coolant and fuel.‪

To perform a major overhaul or other extensive repairs, the complete engine assembly, after removal from the engine base and drive mechanism, should be mounted on an engine overhaul stand; then the various subassemblies should be removed from the engine. When only a few items need replacement, it is not always necessary to mount the engine on an overhaul stand.‪

Parts removed from an individual engine should be kept together so they will be available for inspection and assembly. Those items having machined faces, which might be easily damaged by steel or concrete, should be stored on suitable wooden racks or blocks, or a parts dolly.‪

CLEANING

Before removing any of the subassemblies from the engine (but after removal of the electrical equipment), the exterior of the engine should be thoroughly cleaned. ‪

NOTICE:

The Series 60 engine is equipped with various sensors and other electronic components which may be damaged if subjected to the high temperatures in a solvent tank. Do not immerse any electrical components in a solvent tank. Care should be taken to ensure that all electronic components are removed from the various engine assemblies before they are immersed in a solvent tank. Refer to "9 Electrical Equipment" for a description of these components.‪

Then, after each subassembly is removed and disassembled, the individual parts should be cleaned. Thorough cleaning of each part is absolutely necessary before it can be satisfactorily inspected. Various items of equipment needed for general cleaning are listed below.‪

The cleaning procedure used for all ordinary cast iron parts is the same as the following cylinder block cleaning procedure. Any special cleaning procedures will be mentioned when required.‪

Remove cylinder liners before putting the block in cleaning or descaling baths, to avoid trapping cleaning agents in block liner seating bores.‪

After stripping and before removing the cylinder block from the overhaul stand for cleaning and inspection, install the two metric eye bolts into head bolt holes at each end of the cylinder block.‪

Remove all oil and water gallery and weep hole plugs to allow the cleaning solution to enter the inside of the oil and water passages.‪

  1. Using two metric eye bolts installed in the head bolt holes at opposite ends of the block, and with a suitable lifting device and spreader bar, immerse and agitate the block in a hot bath of a commercial, heavy-duty alkaline solution.
  2. Wash the block in hot water or steam clean it to remove the alkaline solution.
  3. If the water jackets are heavily scaled, proceed as follows:
    1. Agitate the block in a bath of inhibited phosphoric acid.
    2. Allow the block to remain in the acid bath until the bubbling action stops (approximately 30 minutes).
    3. Lift the block, drain it and immerse it again in the same acid solution for 10 more minutes. Repeat until all scale is removed from the water jacket area.
    4. Rinse the block in clear, hot water to remove the acid solution.
    5. Neutralize the acid that may cling to the casting by immersing the block in an alkaline bath.
    6. Wash the block in clean water or steam clean it.
    7. warning

      EYE INJURY

      To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.‪

  4. Dry the cylinder block with compressed air.
    warning

    EYE INJURY

    To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.‪

  5. Blow out all of the bolt holes and passages with compressed air.

    Note: The above cleaning procedure may be used on all ordinary cast iron and steel parts for the engine. Aluminum parts, such as flywheel housing, air intake manifold, oil filter adaptor and the camshaft gear access cover should NOT be cleaned in this manner. Mention will be made of special procedures when necessary.

  6. Be certain that all water passages and oil galleries have been thoroughly cleaned. After the cylinder block has been thoroughly cleaned and dried, install weep hole plugs and precoated pipe plugs. Install new cup plugs using a coating of good grade non-hardening sealant such as Loctite® 620 or equivalent.

Loctite® is a registered trademark of The Loctite Corporation.‪

Steam Cleaning

A steam cleaner is a necessary item in a large shop and is useful for removing heavy accumulations of grease and dirt from the exterior of the engine and its subassemblies.‪

Solvent Tank Cleaner

Chlorinated solvents such as 1,1,1 trichloroethane have been identified by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) as possessing ozone-depleting properties. Special procedures have been developed for the handling and proper disposal of these chemicals. For environmental considerations, Detroit Diesel has replaced 1,1,1 trichloroethane with Tech Solv 340 branded solvent.‪

Tech Solv 340 is a petroleum-based solvent that contains no chlorinated or fluorinated compounds, has a controlled evaporation rate, leaves no residue, is odorless, has a high flash point, and provides outstanding cleaning. To enhance its cleaning and drying properties, it may be heated to 52°C (125°F). Spills can be cleaned up with commercially available oil absorbents, and conventional waste treatment methods for petroleum-based products can be used when disposing of this product.‪

Detroit Diesel believes that a prudent environmental approach to the use of 1,1,1 trichloroethane should be taken. Therefore, Detroit Diesel recommends replacing 1,1,1 trichloroethane with Tech Solv 340 branded solvent wherever the former solvent was used.‪

Tech Solv 340 is manufactured by and available from the following supplier:‪

Chemical Technologies, Inc.‪

1610 Clara Street‪

Jackson, MI 49203‪

Telephone: 800-688-8262‪

FAX: 517-782-2448‪

We believe this source and their Tech Solv 340 solvent to be reliable. There may be other manufacturers of solvents that replace 1,1,1 trichloroethane. Detroit Diesel does not endorse, indicate any preference for, or assume any responsibility for the solvents from these firms or for any such products that may be available from other sources.‪

Solvent Tank Cleaning

A tank of sufficient size to accommodate the largest part that will require cleaning (usually the cylinder block) should be provided and provisions made for heating the cleaning solution.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury while performing the test or procedure, wear adequate eye, face protection, and heat-resistant gloves.‪

Fill the tank with a commercial heavy-duty solvent, such as Tech Solv 340, that is heated to 52°C (125°F). Lower large parts directly into the tank with a hoist. Place small parts in a wire mesh basket and lower them into the tank. Immerse the parts long enough to loosen all of the grease and dirt. ‪

Aluminum or plastic parts such as the flywheel housing, fuel pump drive, air intake manifold, oil filter adaptor, camshaft gear access cover, oil pan or rocker covers, should not be cleaned in this manner.‪

Rinsing Bath

Provide another tank of similar size containing hot water for rinsing the parts.‪

Drying

Parts may be dried with compressed air. ‪

warning

EYE INJURY

To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.‪

The heat from the hot tanks will quite frequently complete drying of the parts without the use of compressed air.‪

Rust Preventive

If parts are not to be used immediately after cleaning, dip them in a suitable rust preventive compound. The rust preventive compound should be removed before installing the parts in an engine.‪

Gasket Eliminator Removal

The gasket eliminator used on numerous mating surface joints in the Series 60 engine results in a very thin film that must be removed from both surfaces prior to reassembly. As many of the surfaces are aluminum and/or dimensionally critical, conventional scraping methods, or the use of emery cloth for removing gasket eliminator is not recommended.‪

Four-inch, 3M Scotch-Brite® Surface Conditioning Discs, used with an electric or air powered hand drill (with a speed of 15,000-18,000 r/min), have proven successful in removing the gasket eliminator without damaging the mating surfaces of engine parts. See Figure "Gasket Eliminator Removal" .‪

Scotch-Brite® is a registered trademark of the 3M Corporation.‪

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Figure 13. Gasket Eliminator Removal

A coarse pad, is suitable for steel surfaces. A medium pad is recommended for aluminum surfaces.‪

The pads are easily interchangeable. See Figure "Scotch-Brite Surface Conditioning Disc Installation" .‪

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Figure 14. Scotch-Brite Surface Conditioning Disc Installation

Inspection

The purpose of parts inspection is to determine which parts can be used and which must be replaced. Although the engine overhaul specifications given throughout the text will aid in determining which parts should be replaced, considerable judgment must be exercised by the inspector. The guiding factors in determining the usability of worn parts, that are otherwise in good condition, is the clearance between the mating parts and the rate of wear on each of the parts. If it is determined that the rate of wear will maintain the clearances within the specified maximum allowable until the next overhaul period, the reinstallation of used parts may be justified. Rate of wear of a part is determined by dividing the amount the part has worn by the hours it has operated‪

Many service replacement parts are available in various undersize or oversize as well as standard sizes. Also, service kits for reconditioning certain parts and service sets that include all of the parts necessary to complete a particular repair job are available.‪

A complete discussion of the proper methods of precision measuring and inspection are outside the scope of this manual. However, every shop should be equipped with standard gages, such as dial bore gages, dial indicators, and inside and outside micrometers.‪

In addition to measuring the used parts after cleaning, the parts should be carefully inspected for cracks, scoring, chipping and other detrimental conditions.‪

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

The following safety measures are essential when working on the Series 60 engine.‪

Exhaust (Start/Run Engine)

Before starting and running an engine, adhere to the following safety precautions:‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury before starting and running the engine, ensure the vehicle is parked on a level surface, parking brake is set, and the wheels are blocked.‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.‪

  • Always start and operate an engine in a well ventilated area.
  • If operating an engine in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the outside.
  • Do not modify or tamper with the exhaust system or emission control system.

Stands

Safety stands are required in conjunction with hydraulic jacks or hoists. Do not rely on either the jack or the hoist to carry the load. When lifting an engine, ensure the lifting device is fastened securely. Ensure the item to be lifted does not exceed the capacity of the lifting device.‪

Glasses

Select appropriate safety glasses for the job. It is especially important to wear safety glasses when using tools such as hammers, chisels, pullers or punches.‪

warning

EYE INJURY

To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.‪

Welding

Wear welding goggles and gloves when welding or using an acetylene torch. ‪

warning

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from arc welding, gas welding, or cutting, wear required safety equipment such as an arc welder's face plate or gas welder's goggles, welding gloves, protective apron, long sleeve shirt, head protection, and safety shoes. Always perform welding or cutting operations in a well ventilated area. The gas in oxygen/acetylene cylinders used in gas welding and cutting is under high pressure. If a cylinder should fall due to careless handling, the gage end could strike an obstruction and fracture, resulting in a gas leak leading to fire or an explosion. If a cylinder should fall resulting in the gage end breaking off, the sudden release of cylinder pressure will turn the cylinder into a dangerous projectile. Observe the following precautions when using oxygen/acetylene gas cylinders:‪

  • Always wear required safety shoes.
  • Do not handle tanks in a careless manner or with greasy gloves or slippery hands.
  • Use a chain, bracket, or other restraining device at all times to prevent gas cylinders from falling.
  • Do not place gas cylinders on their sides, but stand them upright when in use.
  • Do not drop, drag, roll, or strike a cylinder forcefully.
  • Always close valves completely when finished welding or cutting.
warning

FIRE

To avoid injury from fire, check for fuel or oil leaks before welding or carrying an open flame near the engine.‪

NOTICE:

Use proper shielding around hydraulic lines when welding to prevent hydraulic line damage.‪

Ensure that a metal shield separates the acetylene and oxygen that must be chained to a cart.‪

Work Place

Organize your work area and keep it clean. A fall could result in a serious injury. Eliminate the possibility of a fall by: ‪

  • Wiping up oil spills
  • Keeping tools and parts off the floor

After servicing or adjusting the engine:‪

  • Reinstall all safety devices, guards or shields
  • Ensure that all tools and servicing equipment are removed from the engine

Clothing

Safe work clothing fits and is in good repair. Work shoes are sturdy and rough-soled. Bare feet, sandals or sneakers are not acceptable foot wear when adjusting and/or servicing an engine. Do not wear the following when working on an engine: ‪

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PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury when working on or near an operating engine, wear protective clothing, eye protection, and hearing protection.‪

  • Rings
  • Wrist watches
  • Loose fitting clothing

Any of these items could catch on moving parts causing serious injury.‪

Power Tools

Do not use defective portable power tools. ‪

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ELECTRICAL SHOCK

To avoid injury from electrical shock, follow OEM furnished operating instructions prior to usage.‪

Check for frayed cords prior to using the tool. Be sure all electric tools are grounded. Defective electrical equipment can cause severe injury. Improper use of electrical equipment can cause severe injury.‪

Air

Recommendations regarding the use of compressed air are indicated throughout the manual. ‪

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EYE INJURY

To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.‪

Fuel Lines

Remove fuel lines as an assembly. Do not remove fuel lines individually. Avoid getting fuel injection lines mixed up.‪

Fluids and Pressure

Be extremely careful when dealing with fluids under pressure.‪

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PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from penetrating fluids, do not put your hands in front of fluid under pressure. Fluids under pressure can penetrate skin and clothing.‪

Fluids under pressure can have enough force to penetrate the skin. These fluids can infect a minor cut or opening in the skin. If injured by escaping fluid, see a doctor at once. Serious infection or reaction can result without immediate medical treatment.‪

Fuel

Keep the hose and nozzle or the funnel and container in contact with the metal of the fuel tank when refueling to avoid the possibility of an electric spark igniting the fuel.‪

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FIRE

To avoid injury from fire caused by heated diesel-fuel vapors:‪

  • Keep those people who are not directly involved in servicing away from the engine.
  • Stop the engine immediately if a fuel leak is detected.
  • Do not smoke or allow open flames when working on an operating engine.
  • Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, insulated gloves and apron, etc.).
  • To prevent a buildup of potentially volatile vapors, keep the engine area well ventilated during operation.
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GASOLINE VAPOR IGNITION

To avoid injury from possible gasoline vapor ignition when refueling, keep the hose, nozzle, funnel, or container in contact with the metal opening of the fuel tank. This will reduce the likelihood of a dangerous spark.‪

The following cautions should be followed when filling a fuel tank:‪

caution

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from fuel spills, do not overfill the fuel tank.‪

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FIRE

To avoid injury from fire, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel fuel, including open flames, sparks, and electrical resistance heating elements. Do not smoke when refueling.‪

Batteries

Electrical storage batteries emit highly flammable hydrogen gas when charging and continue to do so for some time after receiving a steady charge.‪

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Battery Explosion and Acid Burn

To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid, work in a well ventilated area, wear protective clothing, and avoid sparks or flames near the battery. If you come in contact with battery acid:‪

  • Flush your skin with water.
  • Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize the acid.
  • Flush your eyes with water.
  • Get medical attention immediately.

Always disconnect the battery cable before working on the electrical system.‪

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PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from accidental engine startup while servicing the engine, disconnect/disable the starting system.‪

Disconnect the batteries or disable an air starter when working on the engine (except DDEC) to prevent accidental starting.‪

caution

Electrical Shock

To avoid injury from electrical shock, use care when connecting battery cables. The magnetic switch studs are at battery voltage.‪

Use care when connecting battery cables to avoid electrical shock.‪

Fire

Keep a charged fire extinguisher within reach. Be sure you have the correct type of extinguisher for the situation.‪

Cleaning Agent

Avoid the use of carbon tetrachloride as a cleaning agent because of the harmful vapors that it releases. Ensure the work area is adequately ventilated. Use protective gloves, goggles or face shield, and apron.‪

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PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from harmful vapors or skin contact, do not use carbon tetrachloride as a cleaning agent.‪

Exercise caution against burns when using oxalic acid to clean the cooling passages of the engine.‪

Working on a Running Engine

When working on an engine that is running, accidental contact with the hot exhaust manifold can cause severe burns. ‪

caution

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from unguarded rotating and moving engine components, check that all protective devices have been reinstalled after working on the engine.‪

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PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury, use care when working around moving belts and rotating parts on the engine.‪

Start Attempts

Avoid excessive injection of ether into the engine during start attempts. ‪

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EXPLOSION

To avoid injury from an explosion of natural gas, the following precautions must be taken:‪